Why there’s so much legal uncertainty about resolving a disputed presidential election

This article came to our attention via beSpacific

Via LLRXWhy there’s so much legal uncertainty about resolving a disputed presidential election – As stated in this article by Richard Pildes, Professor of Constitutional Law, New York University – the Constitution does not create rules or an institutional structure for resolving a modern, d...

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In World First, Slovokia Plans To Test the Entire Country For COVID-19

This article came to our attention via Slashdot: Your Rights Online

The BBC reports:Slovakia has begun an ambitious project to test everyone over the age of 10 for Covid-19, but the president has said she thinks the idea is "unfeasible".The operation to test four million people is to last over two weekends. Infections have soared in Slovakia and officials argue...

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New Model! Pullman-Standard 3526/3600/4000 HT “Triple” Coal Hopper System

This post came to our attention via Trains! Trains! Trains!

Tangent’s November release kicks off with our third ALL-NEW HO freight car system for 2020, the HO Scale Pullman-Standard 3526/3600 “Eastern” and 4000 “Western” Triple (3-bay) Coal Hoppers! No pre-orders are required – these cars are available right now! This is the next Pullman-Standard coal hopper product in our line of cars that introduce market-leading design and tooling practices, and is geared toward consumers who desire the most accurate models with a “family-appearance” between prototypes manufactured by the same builder.The mid-1970s brought about an urgent need for new coal hoppers based upon a combination of robust utility and export demand as well as an aging coal fleet composed of mostly smaller-capacity, 50 and 70-ton coal hoppers. Additionally, the opening of new low-sulfur coal mines in the Powder River Basin (PRB) region of Wyoming and Montana introduced a new supply of coal to the market, driving new coal hopper orders.Pullman-Standard was one of several manufacturers that addressed this urgent demand for modern “three-bay” 100-ton hoppers with new designs produced in 1975-1976. While western and midwestern customers purchased Pullman’s 4000 cubic foot models, the eastern roads purchased Pullman’s 3526/3600 cubic foot hoppers, which effectively had shorter sides to accommodate higher density coal. We have produced both the “western” and “eastern” Pullman-Standard coal hoppers, and we offer models in multiple railroad-specific variations. The signature identifying feature for most of these cars? The distinctive Pullman “trapezoid” indentations on the flat panels. These cars stand out and look visually different from other “triple” 100-ton coal hoppers from that era. Additionally, some phases of “western” cars have one “offset” truck bolster to accommodate the longer slope sheet found on the rotary end of the car. This means that on the B-end of the car, the axle "sticks out" past the end of the car! These details vary by roadname, so consult your favorite prototype photos or our model photos for more details!Our system of 3526/3600/4000 HT models being released today build up to represent five major prototype variations. Starting with the “western” or PS4000 HT variations (not to be confused with our “LO” covered hopper models), our system of models includes three different body shells and their corresponding production details, reflecting the most significant designs Pullman-Standard produced from 1975-1976. Our model is a dimensionally-accurate replica of the real car, and includes build details such as brake housings, brake wheels, and truck bearings. This replica includes our “near-scale” draft gear box including side “key” detail. Our ready-to-operate replica is finished with coupler lift bars, rubber air hoses, Kadee® scale couplers, CNC-machined wheels, and sufficient hidden weights to ensure the model operates as good as it looks. Finally, our model includes a realistic and removable “flood load” exactly modeled from example PRB load practices in these Pullman-Standard cars.The Tangent Scale Models “eastern” or PS3526/3600 HT includes two primary build variations to reflect the significant production details found on the cars purchased by Chessie/B&O, Chessie/WM, and Southern. The engineering and appearance of our PS3526/3600 HT models are identical to the aforementioned PS4000 HT model, including the “trapezoidal” indentations in the car sides, however they have lower car sides than the PS4000 HT. A key difference in the Eastern car design is the lack of rotary equipment, so the bolsters are symmetrical like typical freight cars. Finally, our PS3526/3600 models include a realistic and removable “tipple load” modeled after typical eastern mine load practices.In addition for tooling of multiple phases of bodies as part of this system, our new PS3526/3600/4000 coal hopper models feature our new 100-ton Barber S-2 truck, complete with “rotating” roller bearing caps, plus separate brake beam parts.These “core” coal hoppers were bought by a small handful of owners, however the owners bought many of them because they were huge coal-hauling railroads. Our November 2020 production includes three “core” schemes for these hoppers, plus undecorated options:- BN Ph 1 Black Delivery 1975+ PS4000 is easily one of the sharpest schemes applied to these Pullman cars. The classic Burlington Northern billboard scheme was applied with white stencil lettering on a black car, with white rectangles on the end and slope sheets to designate the rotary end. Some of the car fleet was repainted in the 1980s with full white ends and we will offer those down the road, but these samples from BN’s massive fleet of almost 1,200 cars are the statistically relevant scheme for BN’s largest coal hopper fleet. These models have the distinctive Pullman “trapezoid” indentations on the side panels, and the “short B end, long A end” body configuration with offset truck bolster spacing. We offer this scheme in 24 road numbers so you can model a unit train! This 1975+ scheme lasted into the BNSF era so is relevant for all modelers. - BN Ph 3 Black Double Rotary Delivery 1976+ PS4000 illustrates a similar BN scheme to the one above, which was the 1970s “standard” scheme applied to BN coal hoppers. These double rotary cars are necessary for many BN coal trains that had to go through a rotary dumper (otherwise the caboose or locomotives had to be uncoupled from the consist). This scheme is a “Phase 3” car that includes the “Short B and Short A” configuration designated for the BN double rotary cars, and a slightly shorter carbody believe it or not! Yes, we tooled this version. These cars also have the “trapezoid” indentations on the carbody side panels typical of all 1975-1976 BN-ordered Pullman coal hoppers. Available in 2 numbers!
- C&NW Ph 2 Black Delivery 1975+ PS4000 is another all black Pullman-Standard applied paint scheme. CNW’s paint and lettering specification was for the classic “ball and bar” scheme with white painted ends to designate the rotary end of the car. Interestingly, this specific series of CNW cars did not have the distinctive trapezoids on the car sides but instead had flat panels, which forced us to tool a different body shell specifically for this CNW order. These cars were similar to the BN cars because they had the “short B end, long A end” body configuration with offset truck bolster spacing, although they had ladders on the left side of the car instead of grab irons. CNW ordered two groups of these Pullman 4000 cubic foot cars of equal numbers. This Tangent release focuses on the second group, equipped for rotary dumping. Don’t miss out on these classic cars from November 1975! We offer this scheme in 24 road numbers so you can model a unit train! - B&O Chessie Black Delivery 1975+ PS3526 represents our “eastern” car release for this production. We thought Chessie/B&O would be a good offering for our first production, because this series of PS3526 coal hoppers was large - totaling 2,500 cars. These cars have black carbodies and include Chessie yellow graphics including the Chessie cat logo and the “Chessie System” stenciling in the upper left side panels. These cars also have “B&O” and road number stenciling applied to the underframe. We offer this scheme in 24 road numbers so you can model a unit train or mix and match your other Chessie hoppers. Also, don’t forget to match our models up with your Tangent Chessie/B&O I-18 class International bay window caboose released earlier this year, and still available!
  • Undecorated RTR models are also available and come delivered with black paint for those who want to paint their own! We are offering five versions that cover most of our production variation possibilities: • Undecorated RTR PS4000 HT Phase 1 Body Rotary Draft Gear 1975+ • Undecorated RTR PS4000 HT Phase 1 Body Standard Draft Gear 1975+ • Undecorated RTR PS4000 HT Phase 2 Body 1975+ • Undecorated RTR PS4000 HT Phase 3 Body 1976+ • Undecorated RTR PS3526 HT B&O/WM Version 1975+
All of these models can be seen at www.tangentscalemodels.com !The Tangent PS3526/3600 and PS4000 system of coal hoppers offer a multitude of detail variations and phases to replicate the many different Pullman-Standard offerings.These products are shipping today! Features for these coal hopper replicas include: • Dimensional accuracy - designed from Pullman-Standard plans and verified with field measurements • Highly correct “true to life” colors • “Hyper-Accurate” lettering including exact fonts and lettering placement • “Near-scale” draft gear box with beautifully-rendered side “key” detail • Multiple road numbers for each scheme • Two different coal loads (one load is included with each model) • Separately-applied “car shaker” parts • “See-through” brake platform • Full “lacy” AB brake detail and train air line • Rubber air hoses including “wrong side” mounting for rotary ends • Four dimensionally-correct coal hopper body variations with appropriate side panel arrangements (trapezoidal and flat), as well as offset and non-offset truck center arrangements • Five different assembly builds within our system, with more planned (Southern, for starters) • Road-specific details for each scheme, including different brake appliances and 2 different styles of unloading door mechanisms • Beautiful details - wire grab irons and coupler lift bars – no “molded on” plastic grab irons here! • Accurate interior bracing parts • All-New precision Tangent Scale Models 100-ton Barber S-2 trucks with roadname-specific rotating bearing caps and separate brake beam part • CNC-machined 36” wheels • Replacement 36” semi-scale wheels are available separately from Tangent in either blackened or nickel-silver finish • Genuine Kadee® scale “scale-head” couplers • Recommended age 14 years and olderDon’t miss out on the Tangent Scale Models PS3526/3600 and PS4000 system of coal hoppers, one of the most relevant coal hopper models of the 1970s! Pricing for RTR models is $44.95, with quantity discounts for direct purchases from Tangent Scale Models.That wraps up our update for today, and thank you for supporting the family-owned businesses in our industry!David Lehlbach Tangent Scale Models

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Support Grows For Universal Basic Income Trials in UK

This article came to our attention via Slashdot: Your Rights Online

On the U.K. political scene, support may be growing for new tests of a Univerisal Basic Income. The Guardian reports: A cross-party group of MPs has called on the government to allow councils to run universal basic income trials in response to mass unemployment triggered by the Covid-19 pandemic. A ...

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Shocking

This article came to our attention first via Mitigating Chaos

After years of being applauded for being extremely pro-democrat/anti-republican, Saturday Night Live shocked it’s audience (at least they should have been shocked)  with the opening skit on Saturday night. Being an old guy, I haven’t stayed up late enough to watch SNL in several years, b...

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Massachusetts Votes on Expanding Access To Car Data, ‘Could Set the National Standard’

This article came to our attention via Slashdot: Your Rights Online

On Tuesday Massachusetts will vote on expanding the state's right-to-repair law to include more access to car data, in an initiated state statute known as "Question 1." Wired reports:The measure is meant to address how data sharing will work as cars start to suck in and share more wireless data. ...

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Long Links

This post came to our attention first via ongoing by Tim Bray

This is the fifth “Long Links” episode, a monthly curation of good long-form essays from around the Internet that nobody who (unlike me) has an actual job has time to read all of. A glance through this might turn up one or two pieces that would reward even a busy person’s time. [Gee...
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